College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Center for Land Use Education and Research
The Dynamics
of Global Urban Expansion

Study Sites

Most recent investigation found a total of 3,943 distinct metropolitan areas that had population in excess of 100,000 in the year 2000. This list or universe was obtained by combining the UN Habitat list of 4,574 cities with an updated list of 2,884 cities provided by Henderson. In this new list most double counting was eliminated, cities for which exact location could not be found were eliminated, and cities that were estimated to be part of larger metropolitan areas were eliminated as well.

It was determined that a sample of 120 cities would be adequate for deriving statistically-significant results for the universe of cities as a whole, provided it was a stratified sample, where each city in the sample represents a group of cities in the universe and is given a weight that is proportional to the share of the population of this group in the total population of the universe.

The universe of cities was divided into nine regions, representing the world region in which the city is located, according to the UN Habitat breakdown of countries.

 

The universe was also divided into four size classes, according to Henderson, so that the total urban population in each size class was approximately equal. This resulted in the following size categories:

  1. Cities with populations between 100,000 and 528,000;
  2. Cities with populations between 528,000 and 1,490,000;
  3. Cities with populations between 1,490,000 and 4,180,000;
  4. Cities with populations in excess of 4,180,000 million.

To the extent possible, the cities in each of the nine regions were sampled so that there was to be an equal number of cities in each size category.

The 2003 World Development Report and World Bank data for 1995 were used to obtain the classification of the universe of cities into four 2001 per-capita income groupings with reflection of Gross National Product (GNP) per capita in Purchasing Power Parities (PPP):

  1. Cities in countries with annual GNP per-capita measured in PPP of less than $3,000;
  2. Cities in countries with annual GNP per-capita measured in PPP between $3,000 and $5,200;
  3. Cities in countries with annual GNP per-capita measured in PPP between $5,200 and $17,000;
  4. Cities in countries with annual GNP per-capita measured in PPP of $17,000 or higher.

 

City Name
Population 2000
Size Class
Rank
Country Name
GNP/cap. in PPP ($)
Income Class
Eastern Asia
Shanghai
12,900,000
4
1
China 3,547
2
Beijing
10,800,000
4
2
China 3,547
2
Seoul
9,887,779
4
1
Republic of Korea 13,958
3
Hong Kong
6,927,000
4
4
China 3,547
2
Guangzhou
3,893,000
3
9
China 3,547
2
Pusan
3,830,000
3
2
Republic of Korea 13,958
3
Zhengzhou
2,070,000
3
23
China 3,547
2
Yulin
1,558,000
3
46
China 3,547
2
Yiyang
1,343,000
2
67
China 3,547
2
Leshan
1,373,000
2
88
China 3,547
2
Ulan Bator
738,000
2
1
Mongolia 1,491
1
Changzhi
593,500
2
185
China 3,547
2
Anqing
566,100
2
196
China 3,547
2
Ansan
549,900
2
15
Republic of Korea 13,958
3
Chinju
287,100
1
24
China 3,547
3
Chonan
114,600
1
47
Republic of Korea 13,958
3
Europe
City Name
Population 2000
Size Class
Rank
Country Name
GNP/cap. in PPP ($)
Income Class
Paris
9,624,000
4
1
France
23,225
4
Moscow
9,321,000
4
1
Russian Fed.
6,644
3
London
8,219,226
4
1
United Kingdom
22,652
4
Milan
4,251,000
4
1
Italy
22,875
4
Madrid
4,072,000
3
1
Spain
18,314
4
Warsaw
2,269,000
3
1
Poland
9,114
3
Vienna
2,070,000
3
1
Austria
25,694
4
Budapest
1,825,000
3
1
Hungary
11,301
3
Thessaloniki
789,000
2
2
Greece
15,280
3
Palermo
684,300
2
7
Italy
22,875
4
Sheffield
640,048
2
9
United Kingdom
22,652
4
Astrakhan
486,100
1
36
Russian Fed.
6,644
3
Leipzig
446,491
1
19
Germany
23,913
4
Le Mans
194,825
1
34
France
23,225
4
Castellon
144,500
1
40
Spain
18,314
4
Oktyabrsky
111,500
1
147
Russian Fed.
6,644
3
Latin America and the Caribbean
City Name
Population 2000
Size Class
Rank
Country Name
GNP/cap. in PPP ($)
Income Class
Mexico City
18,100,000
4
1
Mexico
8,182
3
Sao Paolo
17,800,000
4
1
Brazil
6,781
3
Buenos Aires
12,600,000
4
1
Argentina
11,131
3
Santiago
5,538,000
4
1
Chile
8,412
3
Guadalajara
3,908,000
3
2
Mexico
8,182
3
Guatemala City
3,242,000
3
1
Guatemala
3,633
2
Caracas
3,153,000
3
1
Venezuela
5,174
2
San Salvador
1,408,000
2
1
El Salvador
4,307
2
Montevideo
1,236,000
2
1
Uruguay
8,130
3
Tijuana
1,167,000
2
7
Mexico
8,182
3
Kingston
912,500
2
1
Jamaica
3,370
2
Ribeirao Preto
502,333
2
23
Brazil
6,781
3
Valledupar
274,300
1
16
Colombia
5,618
3
Guaruja
269,104
1
70
Brazil
6,781
3
Ilheus
161,898
1
85
Brazil
6,781
3
Jequie
130,207
1
102
Brazil
6,781
3
Northern Africa
City Name
Population 2000
Size Class
Rank
Country Name
GNP/cap. in PPP ($)
Income Class
Cairo
10,600,000
4
1
Egypt
3,253
2
Alexandria
4,113,000
3
2
Egypt
3,253
2
Casablanca
3,541,000
3
1
Morocco
3,195
2
Algiers
2,760,740
3
1
Algeria
4,979
2
Marrakech
736,500
2
4
Morocco
3,195
2
Port Sudan
384,100
4
2
Sudan
1,512
1
Aswan
219,017
4
15
Egypt
3,253
2
Tebessa
163,279
4
13
Algeria
4,979
2
Other Developed Countries
City Name
Population 2000
Size Class
Rank
Country Name
GNP/cap. in PPP ($)
Income Class
Tokyo
26,400,000
4
1
Japan
23,828
4
Los Angeles
16,373,645
4
2
United States
31,338
4
Chicago
9,157,540
4
3
United States
31,338
4
Philadelphia
6,188,463
4
6
United States
31,338
4
Houston
4,669,571
4
10
United States
31,338
4
Sydney
3,664,000
3
1
Australia
24,013
4
Minneapolis
2,968,806
3
14
United States
31,338
4
Pittsburgh
2,385,695
3
21
United States
31,338
4
Cincinnati
1,979,202
3
23
United States
31,338
4
Fukuoka
1,341,470
2
10
Japan
23.828
4
Tacoma
700,820
2
62
United States
31,338
4
Springfield
591,932
2
72
United States
31,338
4
Modesto
446,997
1
94
United States
31,338
4
St. Catharines
389,600
1
14
Canada
25,456
4
Victoria
317,506
1
16
Canada
25,456
4
Akashi
293,117
1
60
Japan
23.828
4
South and Central Asia
City Name
Population 2000
Size Class
Rank
Country Name
GNP/cap. in PPP ($)
Income Class
Mumbai
18,100,000
4
1
India
2,220
1
Kolkota
12,900,000
4
2
India
2,220
1
Dhaka
12,300,000
4
1
Bangladesh
1,427
1
Tehran
7,225,000
4
1
Iran
5,460
3
Hyderabad
6,842,000
4
4
India
2,220
1
Pune
3,489,000
3
9
India
2,220
1
Kanpur
2,450,000
3
11
India
2,220
1
Jaipur
2,145,000
3
13
India
2,220
1
Coimbatore
1,292,000
2
23
India
2,220
1
Vijayawada
1,237,000
2
28
India
2,220
1
Rajshahi
1,016,000
2
4
Bangladesh
1,427
1
Ahvaz
997,000
2
7
Iran
5,460
3
Shimkent
360,100
1
4
Kazakhstan
4,215
2
Jalna
244,523
1
158
India
2,220
1
Gorgan
188,710
1
33
Iran
5,460
3
Saidpur
114,000
1
25
Bangladesh
1,427
1
Southeast Asia
City Name
Population 2000
Size Class
Rank
Country Name
GNP/cap. in PPP ($)
Income Class
Metro Manila
10,900,000
4
1
Philippines
3,668
2
Bangkok
7,281,000
4
1
Thailand
5,846
3
Hi Chi Minh City
4,615,000
4
1
Vietnam
1,854
1
Singapore
3,567,000
3
1
Singapore
21,832
4
Bandung
3,409,000
3
2
Indonesia
2,807
1
Medal
1,879,000
3
4
Indonesia
2,807
1
Palembang
1,422,000
2
5
Indonesia
2,807
1
Kuala Lumpur
1,378,000
2
5
Malaysia
8,217
3
Cebu
718,821
2
10
Philippines
3,668
2
Ipoh
566,211
2
2
Malaysia
8,217
3
Bacolod
429,076
1
7
Philippines
3,668
2
Songkhla
342,475
1
2
Thailand
5,846
3
Sub-Saharan Africa
City Name
Population 2000
Size Class
Rank
Country Name
GNP/cap. in PPP ($)
Income Class
Addis Ababa
2,639,000
3
1
Ethiopia
648
1
Johannesburg
2,335,000
3
2
South Africa
8,667
3
Accra
,976,000
3
1
Ghana
1,804
1
Harare
1,752,000
3
1
Zimbabwe
2,372
1
Ibadan
1,731,000
3
3
Nigeria
808
1
Pretoria
1,508,000
3
4
South Africa
8,667
3
Kampala
1,212,000
2
1
Uganda
1,164
1
Bamako
1,131,000
2
1
Mali
683
1
Ouagadougou
1,130,000
2
1
Burkina Faso
931
1
Ndola
568,600
2
3
Zambia
715
1
Banjul
399,386
1
1
Gambia
1,542
1
Kigali
351,400
1
1
Rwanda
1,019
1
Western Asia
City Name
Population 2000
Size Class
Rank
Country Name
GNP/cap. in PPP ($)
Income Class
Istanbul
9,451,000
4
1
Turkey
5,731
3
Tel Aviv-Jaffa
2,181,000
3
1
Israel
18,895
4
Baku
1,936,000
3
1
Azerbaidjan
2,358
1
Sana'a
1,653,300
3
1
Yemen
760
1
Yerevan
1,406,765
2
1
Armenia
2,222
1
Kuwait City
1,190,000
2
1
Kuwait
14,471
3
Malatya
437,000
1
14
Turkey
5,731
3
Zugdidi
104,947
1
6
Georgia
1,722
1